Account ID A case-
Active Contract A Contract that has been ordered.
Active Member Voip provider Member that has paid to or got paid by Voip provider for the past traffic exchange at least once.
AHT (Average Hold Time) The average length of time between the moment a caller finishes dialing and the moment the call is answered or terminated.
AS (Autonomous System) A set of routers under a single technical administration. An AS uses an internal gateway protocol and common metrics to route Packets within the AS, and uses an external gateway protocol to route packets to other ASs.
ASP (Application Service Provider) An independent, third-
Backbone A very-
Balance See Net Termination Balance.
Bandwidth The maximum data carrying capacity of a transmission link. For networks, bandwidth is usually expressed in bits per second (bps).
Billing Increment A call measurement unit, expressed in seconds. Calls that involve a fraction of a billing increment are rounded up.
Buyer A Registered User or a Member of Voip provider that intends to purchase Termination Services.
Buyer Tariff The price at which a Voip provider Member can send minutes to the destination associated with the Ordered Contract. Buyer Tariff equals the sum of the Seller Tariff and the Clearing Fee. Potential Buyers can indicate Tariffs that they are willing to pay for Termination Services in theirRequests.
Call Establishment of (or an attempt to establish) a voice or data connection between two endpoints, or between two points which provide a partial link (e.g. a trunk) between two endpoints.
CDR (Call Detail Record) An automatically generated downloadable report for a requested time period. The report contains information on the number of calls, call duration, call origination and destination, and billed amount. Voip provider Members use CDR reports to bill retail customers and settle with their partners on a wholesale level.
Clearing Fee The amount of money a Buyer pays to Voip provider for the Clearing Service. Clearing Fee is calculated on a per minute basis.
Clearing Service The service that allows Internet Telephony Service Providers, Members of Voip provider, to terminate each other's calls. The Clearing Service includes all the necessary system maintenance, authorization, routing, billing, administration, settlement, and collecting charges on behalf of the Members.
Congestion The situation in which there are too manyPackets present in the network, leading to performance degradation.
Contract A set of parameters that a Voip provider Member using theClearing Service establishes in order to receive traffic from and provide termination services to other Voip provider Members. Contract details include the requested price per minute (Tariff), Grace Period, Minimum Call Duration, Billing Increment, Start Date, End Date, and one or more registered Gateways/Gatekeepers that will be terminating calls sent by a Voip provider Member who has ordered this Contract.
Credit Line Past credit limit. A Buyer's initial Credit Line is equal to two times (2x) Deposit.
Deposit A deposit that establishes the Buyer's initial credit limit. The Deposit is refundable at the end of the Membership Agreement term provided that the Buyer has no outstanding liabilities with PC 2 Phone.
E.164 The international public telecommunication numbering plan. An E.164 number uniquely identifies a public network termination point and typically consists of three fields, CC (country code), NDC (national destination code), and SN (subscriber number), up to 15 digits in total.
E1 A wide-
Endpoint SIP or H.323 terminal or Gateway. An endpoint can Call and be Called. It generates and terminates the information stream.
End Date Date determining the end of the period during which Voip provider Members will terminate calls to the Gateways specified in a particular Contract. Expired Contracts (those with the End Date in the past) cannot be ordered.
Failed Call An attempted Call that does not receive the Connect message. Such calls are not billed.
Firewall A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented as hardware, software, or a combination of both. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the security criteria specified on the firewall.
G.7xx A family of ITU standards for audio compression.
G.711 A 64 kbps PCM half-
G.723.1 A 6.4/5.3 kbps MP-
G.726 A 40/32/24/16 ADPCM codec (good quality, medium bandwidth, low processor load).
G.728 A 16 kbps LD-
G.729 An 8 kbps ACELP codec (medium quality, low bandwidth, high processor load).
Gatekeeper The central control entity that performs management functions in a Voice and Fax over IP network and for multimedia applications such as video conferencing. Gatekeepers provide intelligence for the network, including address resolution, authorization, and authentication services, the logging of Call Detail Records, and communications with network management systems. Gatekeepers control bandwidth, provide interfaces to existing legacy systems, and monitor the network for engineering purposes as well as for real-
Gatekeeping Fee The fee paid by Voip provider Members to Voip provider for the Gatekeeping Service.
Gatekeeping Service A PC 2 Phone Member may choose to use the Voip provider Gatekeeping Service only, without credit risk management and clearing functions. The Gatekeeping Service includes system maintenance, authorization, routing, accounting for sent/received minutes, and other functions.
Gateway In IP telephony, a network device that converts voice and fax calls, in real time, between the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and an IP network. The primary functions of an IP gateway include voice and fax compression/ decompression, packetization, call routing, and control signaling. Additional features may include interfaces to external controllers, such as Gatekeepers or Softswitches, billing systems, and network management systems.
GKTMP (Cisco Gatekeeper Transaction Message Protocol) A proprietary Cisco protocol used for communication between the Cisco IOS Gatekeeper and external applications.
Grace Period The time interval at the beginning of a call, measured in seconds, that is not billed. Voip provider Clearing Fee and Routing Fee do not apply to the grace period.
H.225 Protocols (RAS, RTP/RTCP, Q.931 call signaling) and message formats forH.323.
H.245 A protocol for capability negotiation, messages for opening and closing channels for media streams, etc. (i.e. media signaling).
H.323 An ITU-
IPCB.net Short name for IP Clearing Board.
IP Clearinghouse An organization that provides clearing and settlement services in IP Telephony.
IP Precedence see Type of Service.
IP Telephony (Also called Voice over IP) Technology that allows voice phone calls to be made over the Internet or other Packet networks using a PC via Gateways and standard telephones. VoIP primarily builds on and complements existing standards, such as H.323 and SIP.
ISP Internet Service Provider.
ITSP Internet Telephony Service Provider.
ITU (International Telecommunications Union) An organization established by the United Nations to set telecommunications standards, allocate frequencies for various uses, and sponsor trade shows every four years.
Jitter The variation in the amount of Latency among Packets being received
Latency (Also called Delay) The amount of time it takes a Packet to travel from source to destination. Together, Latency and Bandwidth define the speed and capacity of a network.
Licensed Software The "harvester software" and any other software provided by Voip provider to a Member for the purpose of record keeping, accounting, and/or access to Voip provider services, and including Voip provider-
Load Balancing Distribution of calls among terminating Gateways based on the Priorities and Weights assigned by the Buyer.
Member [of Voip provider] An operator with IP Telephony minutes and/or termination capabilities; a Registered User that has signed the Membership Agreement and paid the Membership Fee, and, has thereby gained access to Voip provider Clearing and Gatekeeping Services.
Member in Good Standing PC 2 Phone Member that maintains its Credit Line with Voip provider in Good Standing.
Membership Agreement A signed agreement between a Voip provider Member and Voip provider, where Voip provider provides Gatekeeping services orClearing services between Sellers and Buyers. The Membership Agreement form is e-
Membership Fee A non-
MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol) A protocol complementary to H.323 and SIP, designed to control media gateways from external call control elements in decomposed gateway architectures. Working in conjunction with the Gateway Location Protocol (GLP), MGCP enables a caller with a PSTN phone number to locate the destination device and establish a session. It provides the gateway-
Minimum Duration The minimum billed call duration up to which all shorter calls are rounded in seconds.
Minute One (1) minute of communication resulting from a connection between a calling number and a called number.
Net Termination Balance The net of Termination Services purchased by a Member and Termination Services sold by the Member, determined in accordance with applicable Tariffs.
Offer An offer of Termination Services in a particular area. Offer details include the desired Seller Tariff and estimated traffic volume. Offers can be submitted by all Registered Users, with no commitments attached.
Order Contract An operation by which a Voip provider Member commits to purchase termination services offered by another Voip provider Member. The operation includes assigning Priorities and Weights to a collection of Contracts.
Order Contracts and Routes An operation by which a Voip provider Member activates its own routes and commits to purchase termination services offered by other Voip provider Members. The operation includes assigning Priorities and Weights to a collection of Routes and Contracts.
Order Route An operation by which a Voip provider Member activates its own Route. The operation includes assigning Priorities and Weights to a collection of Routes.
Packet A piece of a message transmitted over a network. Large chunks of information are broken up into packets before they are sent across the Internet.
Priority A number (1-
Profile Information on a PC 2 Phone Registered User, including details such as the Contact Name, submitted to Voip provider on registering. Voip provider engineers use the Profiles to contact Members for troubleshooting purposes. This information is confidential and is accessible to authorized Voip provider personnel only.
Protocol A common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate.
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network.
Q.931 ISDN connection control protocol, roughly comparable to TCP in the Internet protocol stack. Q.931 doesn't provide flow control or perform retransmission, because the underlying layers are assumed to be reliable and the circuit-
QoS (Quality of Service) Ability of a network element (e.g., an application, host, or router) to have some level of assurance that its traffic and service requirements can be satisfied.
RAS (Registration, Admission, Status) A management protocol between terminals and Gatekeepers.
RateWatch Voip provider subsystem that provides pricing information on IP Telephony termination.
Registered User An Internet user that has registered at Voip provider Web Site and received an Account ID/Password.
Request A request for Termination Services in a particular area. Request details include the desired Buyer Tariff and estimated traffic volume. Requests can be submitted by all Registered Users, with no commitments attached.
Route A set of parameters predefined by Voip provider to facilitate routing of traffic between the Gateways/Gatekeepers controlled by a Voip provider Member either via ownership or via a partnership with the owner. Along with specifying other parameters, a Voip provider Member using the Gatekeeping Service assigns to a Route values specifying the details of both originating and terminating Gateways/Gatekeepers.
Seller A Registered User or a Member of the Voip provider that intends to sell Termination Services.
Seller Tariff The price requested by the Seller for terminating minutes at a specific destination.
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) An application-
Signaling The exchange of information between points in the network that sets up, controls, and terminates each telephone call.
Softswitch (Also called a Proxy Gatekeeper, Call Server, Call Agent, Media Gateway Controller, or Switch Controller) Software used to bridge a public switched telephone network and voice over Internet by separating the call control functions of a phone call from the media gateway (transport layer). Softswitch performs call control functions such as protocol conversion, authorization, accounting and administration operations.
Start Date Date determining the start of the period during which Voip provider Members will terminate calls to the Gateways specified in a particular Contract. It is possible to order future Contracts (those with the Start Date in the future) in advance.
T1 A wide-
Tariff The price of Termination Services per minute specified in a Contract. See also Seller Tariff, Buyer Tariff.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Connection-
Termination Contract See Contract.
Termination Services The completion by a Voip provider Member of a telephone call originated by another Member.
ToS (Type of Service) An 8-
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) A connectionless transport layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams without acknowledgment or guaranteed delivery. Error processing and retransmission must be handled by other protocols.
Weight A number (10-